Study Sculpture and Drawing at The Parker Studio of Structural Sculpture

Parker Studio Structural Sculpture Entrance

Parker Studio Structural Sculpture Entrance

Parker Studio offers art classes in drawing and sculpture in our Baltimore studio space on Lafayette Square.

Check the calendar for an ongoing schedule, and click on the class titles for more detailed descriptions.  Detailed class descriptions also appear below.

Current and Upcoming Classes and Open Groups

OPEN FIGURE DRAWING, and RELIEF SCULPTURE: Mondays from 6:30 PM to 9:30 PM.

OPEN FIGURE SCULPTURE: Tuesdays from 10:30 AM to 2:30 PM, Sundays from 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM.

FIGURE MODELLO SCULPTURE COURSE: Fridays from 10:30 AM to 2:30 PM (morning session) and 7:00 PM to 10:00 PM (evening session).

ANATOMICAL FIGURE SCULPTURE CLASS: Sundays from 2:00 PM to 6:00 PM. The first session to focus on the construction of an armature, and will not count toward the requisite 13 classes. Optional workshop time for the Anatomical Figure Sculpture Class is Wednesdays, or before, or after Saturday class session.

Open Drawing and Sculpture Groups

Fourth Floor Drawing Studio Room

Fourth Floor Drawing Studio Room

Join us for open drawing and sculpture groups, in which participants can work in our studio space and share the cost of a live model. Please call to arrange for participation. No instruction is offered for the Open Groups, and all levels of experience are welcome.

Follow these links for more details on the Open Figure Drawing and Relief Sculpture Group and the Open Figure Sculpture Group.

 

Classes in Drawing and Sculpture

Classes are private and by appointment. Students are responsible for the provision of materials.

Anatomy Sculpture demonstration from class

Anatomy Sculpture demonstration from class

BEGINNING COMPOSITION FIGURE SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course consists of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Figure Sculpture is each time for the duration of the course. Students will focus on bone landmarks and major muscle groups while working to capture the action of the pose and characteristics of the model. Overall forms will be blocked in through observation of shapes, rhythms and interconnecting commensurate planes, leading to a simplified yet integrated sculpture sketch composition.

 

Cost for the course:
$ 1120.00 for 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for 13 3-hour evening sessions.

ANATOMICAL FIGURE SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

Third Floor Sculpture Studio Room, showing the Anatomical Collection, and Mastiff pup (pup not normally allowed in studio).

Third Floor Sculpture Studio Room, showing the Anatomical Collection, and Mastiff pup (pup not normally allowed in studio).

 

This course will be taught in four parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour classes (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Figure Sculpture each time for the duration. Working from the model, students will construct an ecorche with exposed skeletal and underlying muscle parts on one side and rendered surface muscles on the other. The first half of the course will focus on the underlying structure while, in the second half, students will work towards completing the overlying muscle masses. All skeletal and muscle shapes will be treated in a naturalistic manner, but with inherent shape content true to the model.

Cost for the course:
$ 1120.00 for each quarter segment consisting of 13 4-hour daytime sessions.

or

$ 1120.00 for each quarter segment consisting of 13 3-hour evening sessions.


Borghese Warrior - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman - Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman – Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman - Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman – Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Borghese Warrior - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman - Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman – Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman - Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

Borghese Warrior – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman – Louvre Museum, Paris, Plaster Munich

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Muenchen Abgussmuseum Museum für Abgüsse Klassischer Bildwerk, A small portion of the Munich Plaster Cast Collection of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture which consists of thousands of plasters mostly cast directly from new molds off the original sculptures.

Muenchen Abgussmuseum Museum für Abgüsse Klassischer Bildwerk, A small portion of the Munich Plaster Cast Collection of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture which consists of thousands of plasters mostly cast directly from new molds off the original sculptures. Collections of plaster casts of  Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture were started in Italy during the Renaissance in important art training centers. These plaster collections grew in size and importance as the High Rennaissance arrived and the expansion beyond Italy for the serious education in art became more available. The plaster cast when of extremely high quality is preferable to the actual marble or bronze, utilizing these plaster casts to study Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture. The complex visual geometric shape orders are more easily discerned in a top quality plaster than the marble or bronze. This new recreated plaster cast collection reflects what were massive collections of plaster casts of Greek Classical, Greek Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman sculpture created during the late 17th. through the 18th. and 19th. century in Europe with the further introduction and development of Academies of art funded by the State, a few businessmen that funded collections, and starting in the mid 19th. century large archaeology department collections that started to form. Most of what survive in Europe now are associated with archaeology departments. Most of the surviving plaster cast collections associated with the various European art schools and academies are of very low quality. Large collections each comprising 5,000 to 9,000 plasters casts after antique also with some including pre-nineteenth century highlights of European sculpture was especially present in the Germanic, Scandinavian and French regions. The disbandment of utilizing the plaster collection of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture as the primary source of visual complex content to study and emulate started in the early and mid 19th. century initially in the French art academies with the ill-informed optical record photo-inspired “Classical” realists, and Romantic period artists. The influence of the French Academy was dominant across Europe since the Academy system was first initiated in France in the late 17th. century and was the template that most Academies throughout Europe based their own academies on. The movement in opposition to Greek/Greco-Roman visual content spread across Europe with the French Academy influence, and photography and the development of “optical record” as the template for art in imitation of photography. With the later 19th. century early modernists, Secessionists, Impressionists expanded this movement away from Greek sculpture as anything more than a substitute to the life-model to learn how to copy tonalities and anatomy superficially. As well as the “anatomy realism” popularly credited of Rodin – another “Optical Record” type from life-models with later variants of Rodin’s lineage of superficial anatomy surface rendering bravado in opposition to Greek antique sculpture complex geometric orders of visual language content. The next period brought the destruction of the plaster casts during the twentieth-century wars, and finally the purposeful destruction during the twentieth-century by the modernists of the majority remaining surviving plaster casts of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture. The reformation of plaster casts of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture that has occurred since 1989 has little to do with contemporary art trends and more a concern of archaeology departments within European universities and State institutions. Thankfully the contemporary visually and intellectually uneducated artist that comprise our period are not intrinsically involved in this re-establishing culture, history, aesthetics, and visual content heights of achievement displayed to the public with these re-established collections. The examples in past history here in the United States of plaster cast collections of Greek Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman sculpture were primarily a lower quality rendition plaster from the original sculptures imported from Europe as less expensive later pulls from a mold after the detail and integrity of complex form had diminished – thus a cheap price. Also, the Caproni Brothers supplied lesser quality plasters within the United States which were from molds they brought over with them to supply the demand for cheap plaster casts to an unsophisticated client, or institution. The lower quality plaster casts of Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture in the United States history equates with the lower quality rendition of the American artist and their education in the 19th. and 20th. century, apart from the import of the modernist and “optical record” doctrines with those returning American artists after their sojourns to study in Europe during the mid through late 19th. century. The surviving plaster cast collections here in the United States are primarily of low quality and essentially useless apart from tonal replication practice exercises (optical record exercises that could be a lampshade post or a sculpture that lacks content) for drawing, painting, or sculpture – without any of the attributes – complex visual geometric orders content of the Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture – present that determines their significance.

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Plaster of Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Plaster of Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Plaster of Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Plaster of Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman

Hanging Marsyas, would be paired with Uffitzi, Florence, Italy - Scithian - Turkey, Plaster

Hanging Marsyas would be paired with Uffizi, Florence, Italy – Scythian – Turkey, Plaster

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Pergamon Museum Berlin – Male Torso – Hanging Marsyas fragment, Greco-Roman


FIGURE MODELLO SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in two parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Figure Sculpture each time for the duration. The figure will be studied in greater depth than in the maquette course. The first half of the course will cover bone structure alignments, masses and proportion. The second half will focus on the surface of masses and surface anatomy. Both halves of the course will cover geometric patterning of shapes, commensurate planes, and planar rhythms.

FIGURE MODELLO SCULPTURE COURSE, Sculpture Demonstration For Class by P. Brad Parker

FIGURE  SCULPTURE COURSE, Sculpture Demonstration For Class by P. Brad Parker

 

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for first 13 4-hour daytime sessions.

or

$ 1200.00 for first 13 3-hour evening sessions.

$ 1200.00 for second 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for second 13 3-hour evening sessions.

FIGURE MODEL SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in four parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Figure Sculpture each time for the duration. The figure will be studied in greater depth than in the modello course. The first half of the course will cover bone structure alignments, the masses and proportion. The second half will focus on the particular surface of masses, in depth surface anatomy and personality of the structures of the model. Both halves of the course will cover geometric patterning of shapes, commensurate planes, and planar rhythms. The added time length will enable a more mature articulated sculpture.

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for each quarter – Day – four hour each class.

or

$ 1200.00 for each quarter – Eve. – three hours each class.


Farnese Herakles - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman - Naples National Archaeology Museum, Plaster Munich

Farnese Herakles – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman – Naples National Archaeology Museum, Plaster Munich

Venus de Medici - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman copy - Uffitzi Museum, Florence - Plaster, Munich

Venus de Medici – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman copy – Uffitzi Museum, Florence – Plaster, Munich

Venus de Medici - Hellenistic, Greco-Roman copy - Uffitzi Museum, Florence - Plaster, Munich

Venus de Medici – Hellenistic, Greco-Roman copy – Uffitzi Museum, Florence – Plaster, Munich

 

FIGURE MODEL SCULPTURE COURSE, Demonstration Sculpture from class

FIGURE  SCULPTURE, Demonstration Sculpture from class by P. Brad Parker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


FIGURE RELIEF SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in two parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique, or Modern Sculpture Plaster Figure, or Anatomical Model will be utilized several class sessions, to more extended projects within the two parts 13 meeting each time frame. Students will study bone landmarks and major muscle groups while working to capture the action of the pose and characteristics of the model. Overall forms will be blocked in through observation of shapes, rhythms and interconnecting commensurate planes, leading to a simplified yet integrated relief sculpture, defining sculptural content, and sketch composition. This course will establish how to develop a relief sculpture from a shape orientation method, as opposed to copying shadows, and light, which is not a dependable factor in representing content.

Adriaen de Vries, Vulcan's Forge, 1611 Bronze, 47 x 56.5 cm., Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich

Adriaen de Vries, Vulcan’s Forge, 1611
Bronze, 47 x 56.5 cm.,
Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich

 

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for first 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
Or
$ 1200.00 for first 13 3-hour evening sessions.

$ 1200.00 for second 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
Or
$ 1200.00 for second 13 3-hour evening sessions.

 

 

 

 

 


BEGINNING SCULPTURE PORTRAIT BUST COURSE
(detailed description)

This course consists of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique Sculpture Plaster Portrait Bust each time for the duration. Blocking in overall shapes, bone landmarks and major muscle groups, students will work towards capturing the likeness and character of the model. Overall, forms will be blocked in through observation of shapes, rhythms and interconnecting commensurate planes, leading to a simplified yet integrated portrait sketch.

Cost for the course:
$ 1120.00 for 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for 13 3-hour evening sessions.

Frederich Wilhelm Eugen Doell, sculpture portrait bust of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Friedenstein Castle, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen

Frederich Wilhelm Eugen Doell, sculpture portrait bust of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Friedenstein Castle, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany


Christian Daniel Rauch - portrait bust of Goethe, marble, Leipzig Museum of Fine Art

Christian Daniel Rauch – portrait bust of Goethe, marble, Leipzig Museum of Fine Art


Faun Head - Munchen Glyptotek - Greco-Roman Hellenistic

Faun Head – Munchen Glyptotek – Greco-Roman Hellenistic

 

Faun Head - Munchen Glyptotek - Greco-Roman Hellenistic

Faun Head – Munchen Glyptotek – Greco-Roman Hellenistic

Faun Head - Munchen Glyptotek - Greco-Roman Hellenistic

Faun Head – Munchen Glyptotek – Greco-Roman Hellenistic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


PORTRAIT MODELLO SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in two parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique Sculpture Plaster Portrait Bust each time for the duration. The portrait will be studied in greater depth than in the maquette course. The first half of the course will cover bone structure alignments, masses and proportion. The second half will focus on the surface of masses and surface anatomy. Both halves of the course will cover geometric patterning of shapes, commensurate planes, and planar rhythms.

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for first 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for first 13 3-hour evening sessions.

$ 1200.00 for second 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for second 13 3-hour evening sessions.

Sonia, clay

Sonia, clay sculpture prior to plaster casting; sculpted from life by P. Brad Parker

PORTRAIT SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in four parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three half hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique Sculpture Plaster Portrait Bust each time for the duration. The portrait will be studied in greater depth than in the modello course. The first half of the course will cover bone structure alignments, masses and proportion. The second half will focus on the particular surface of masses, in depth surface anatomy and personality of the structures of the model. Both halves of the course will cover geometric patterning of shapes, commensurate planes, and planar rhythms. The added time length will enable a more mature articulated portrait.

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for each quarter – Day – four hours each class.

or

$ 1200.00 for each quarter – Eve. – three hours each class.


Portrait of Young Woman, bildhauer - Ernst Reitschel, Dresden

Portrait of Young Woman, bildhauer – Ernst Reitschel, Dresden

 

Portrait Bust of a Young Woman, bildhauer - Ernst Reitschel, Dresden

Portrait Bust of a Young Woman, bildhauer – Ernst Reitschel, Dresden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Busto Fonseca, età flavia, inizio II sec dc, Livia, Greco-Roman bust, Capitolini Museum, Rome

Busto Fonseca, età flavia, inizio II sec dc, Livia, Greco-Roman bust, Capitolini Museum, Rome

Busto Fonseca, età flavia, inizio II sec dc, Livia, Greco-Roman bust, Capitolini Museum, Rome

Busto Fonseca, età flavia, inizio II sec dc, Livia, Greco-Roman bust, Capitolini Museum, Rome

Pseudo Seneca Bust, Bronze, Napoli - Naples National Archaeology Museum, Greco-Roman copy of Hellenistic Bust, Herculaneum

Pseudo Seneca Bust, Bronze, Napoli – Naples National Archaeology Museum, Greco-Roman copy of Hellenistic Bust, Herculaneum

Pseudo Seneca Bust, Bronze, Napoli - Naples National Archaeology Museum, Greco-Roman copy of Hellenistic Bust, Herculaneum

Pseudo Seneca Bust, Bronze, Napoli – Naples National Archaeology Museum, Greco-Roman copy of Hellenistic Bust, Herculaneum

 

 

 


PORTRAIT BUST RELIEF SCULPTURE COURSE
(detailed description)

This course will be taught in two parts, each part consisting of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique, or Modern Sculpture Plaster Portrait Bust, or Anatomical Model will be utilized several class sessions, to more extended projects within the two parts 13 meeting each time frame. Students will focus on bone landmarks and major muscle groups while working to capture the action of the pose and characteristics of the model. Overall forms will be blocked in through observation of shapes, rhythms and interconnecting commensurate planes, leading to a simplified yet integrated relief sculpture, defining sculptural content, and sketch composition. This course will establish how to develop a relief sculpture from a shape orientation method, as opposed to copying shadows, and light, which is not a dependable factor in representing content.

 

Portrait Relief of Clara and Husband Robert Schumann, - Doppelmedaillon von Ernst Rietschel, bildhauer, Dresden

Portrait Relief of Clara and Husband Robert Schumann, – Doppelmedaillon von Ernst Rietschel, bildhauer, Dresden

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for first 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
Or
$ 1200.00 for first 13 3-hour evening sessions.

 

$ 1200.00 for second 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
Or
$ 1200.00 for second 13 3-hour evening sessions.


Charcoal drawing of life model, Paula

Dusk composition figure, rear view, charcoal drawing by P. Brad Parker

 

Charcoal drawing of the Farnese Hercules, Hellenistic Sculpture

Farnese Hercules in the National Archeological Museum in Naples, Italy; version of the Hellenistic bronze statue by Lysippos, ca. 330 BC, signed by Glykon of Athens; charcoal drawing made on site by P. Brad Parker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


DRAWING COURSE – FIGURE & PORTRAIT MODEL / LIFE MODEL / ANTIQUE SCULPTURE / PLASTER CAST / ANATOMICAL MODELS / SKELETONS COURSE
(detailed description)

This course consists of 13, four-hour sessions (day), or three-hour sessions (evening). The same pose, and intended Life Model, or Antique, or Modern Sculpture Plaster Figure / Portrait Bust, or Anatomical Model utilized each class session, to several class sessions through the 13 meetings. Students will focus on bone landmarks and major muscle groups while working to capture the action of the pose and characteristics of the model. Overall forms will be blocked in through observation of shapes, rhythms and interconnecting commensurate planes, leading to a simplified yet integrated drawing defining sculptural content, and sketch composition. This course will establish how to draw a person from a shape orientation method, as opposed to copying shadows, and light, which is not a dependable factor in representing content.

Cost for the course:
$ 1200.00 for 13 4-hour daytime sessions.
or
$ 1200.00 for 13 3-hour evening sessions.

Students of painting and drawing, as well as those of sculpture, will benefit from these courses. Through the study of anatomy, running rhythms, natural geometric shape type, shape projection (seeing three-dimensionally from a single point of view), commensurate planes, balance, symmetry and asymmetry, the students will come to better understand the actual shapes of the bust or figure and to perceive the interrelationships which cause the figure or portrait to seem capable of function and movement. The instructor will point out specific shape types in the model and demonstrate how every large shape is reflected in each smaller part of the head or figure. Structural anatomy and the balance of weight and mass will be studied in depth. An understanding of the large masses as a base for smaller details will be strongly emphasized and, subsequently, the bust or figure will seem more natural and clearly ordered. Shadows will be used as a tool to reveal shape instead of hiding it. As a result of the course, students will become less likely to do work which appears oversimplified, disjointed or appear cartoon-like. Individual styles may be achieved later by choice rather than by mistake.

Students will also have visual access to a unique and extensive collection of anatomical models, anatomical figures and complete male and female European Skeletons. Sculpture Armature will be built in a class previous to the first weeks class with the model. A complete supply list is available for the Sculpture Armature and Sculpture Tools for enrolled students. Classes are limited to 10 students.


Polyphemus Group - Companion of Odysseus bust - British Museum, discovered 1860 in Tivoli, a gift by Caesar Tiberius to one of his Generals, re-sculpted as an additonal bust from one of the Polyphemus figures

Polyphemus Group – Companion of Odysseus bust – British Museum, discovered 1860 in Tivoli, a gift by Caesar Tiberius to one of his Generals, re-sculpted as an additional bust from one of the Polyphemus figures

Polyphemus Group - Companion of Odysseus bust - British Museum, discovered 1860 in Tivoli, a gift by Caesar Tiberius to one of his Generals, re-sculpted as an additonal bust from one of the Polyphemus figures

Polyphemus Group – Companion of Odysseus bust – British Museum, discovered 1860 in Tivoli, a gift by Caesar Tiberius to one of his Generals, re-sculpted as an additional bust from one of the Polyphemus figures

Leopold Doell - Crouching Aphrodite, Gotha, Thueringen

Leopold Doell – Crouching Aphrodite, Gotha, Thueringen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sperlonga Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops Foot, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto - villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: "Athenodoros, son of Agesander", "Agesandros, son of Paionios" (Paionios is a rare name) and "Polydoros, son of Polydoros" signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the "Scylla group".

Sperlonga Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops Foot, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto – villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: “Athenodoros, son of Agesander”, “Agesandros, son of Paionios” (Paionios is a rare name) and “Polydoros, son of Polydoros” signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the “Scylla group”.

Sperlonga Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops hand, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto - villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: "Athenodoros, son of Agesander", "Agesandros, son of Paionios" (Paionios is a rare name) and "Polydoros, son of Polydoros" signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the "Scylla group".

Sperlonga Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops hand, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto – villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: “Athenodoros, son of Agesander”, “Agesandros, son of Paionios” (Paionios is a rare name) and “Polydoros, son of Polydoros” signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the “Scylla group”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fragment of the Cyclops, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Sperlonga

Fragment of the Cyclops, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Sperlonga

Sperlonga National Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops Leg / Hand, Side View. Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto - villa of Emperor Tiberius.

Sperlonga National Museum, Polyphemus Group, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, Cyclops Leg / Hand, Side View. Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto – villa of Emperor Tiberius.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fragment of the Cyclops - legs - front view, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Sperlonga

Fragment of the Cyclops – legs – front view, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Sperlonga

One of Ulysses's companions, the wineskin bearer, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Tiberian age, Sperlonga, Lazio, Italy

One of Ulysses’s companions, the wineskin bearer, from the Blinding of Polyphemus group, Tiberian age, Sperlonga, Lazio, Italy

Polyphemus Group - Original marble, Sperlonga Museum, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, One of the Ulysses (Odysseus) Companion, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto - villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: "Athenodoros, son of Agesander", "Agesandros, son of Paionios" (Paionios is a rare name) and "Polydoros, son of Polydoros" signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the "Scylla group".

Polyphemus Group – Original marble, Sperlonga Museum, Blinding of Polyphemus the cyclops (one-eyed giant) by Odysseus and his men, One of the Ulysses (Odysseus) Companion, Greco-Roman copy of an Hellenistic sculpture. Excavated in Sperlonga nearby grotto – villa of the Emperor Tiberius, the Rhodian sculptors: “Athenodoros, son of Agesander”, “Agesandros, son of Paionios” (Paionios is a rare name) and “Polydoros, son of Polydoros” signed on the sculpture base of this and one of the other groups found the “Scylla group”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polyphemus Group - Original marble, One of the Ulysses Companion, National Archaeology Museum of Sperlonga

Polyphemus Group – Original marble, One of the Ulysses Companion, National Archaeology Museum of Sperlonga

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Blinding of Polyphemus, cast reconstruction of the group, Sperlonga

The Blinding of Polyphemus, cast reconstruction of the group, Sperlonga.                                                                                                                                      During the high points of European art training which enabled the best results in the artists sophistication utilizing a complex visual language in producing their mature artworks – understanding by intensive study and replication of abstract visual complexity orders after the highest quality plaster casts of Antique Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture as well as original Greek and Greco-Roman sculptures where available were the most important factor in that education. Anatomy referenced here is the simple language in art education which to have relevance to Greek and Greco-Roman must incorporate and interplay with complex visual geometric orders content to which the anatomical study and implementation are subordinate. The best surviving Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture is the hallmark of achievement in European art of which the Renaissance through our period today is secondary lesser art in comparison. Greek Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman higher tier sculptures “style” is completely intertwined – it is undifferentiated – the style and the complex geometric orders of visual content are organically the same. European sculpture from the Rennaissance through the early nineteenth century is predominantly “style” with a varying amount of complex geometric orders of visual content, though always secondary to the superficial “style” – in comparison to Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture in it’s best examples. Anatomy as taught in the more sophisticated ateliers and academies from the Renaissance through the late eighteenth century framed complex geometric orders of visual content together with subordinate anatomy based on Greek Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman sculpture. These Greek and Greco-Roman sculptures being the source material comprising the aesthetic complex visual content glue that held together relevance through the various European periods of art training.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gottfried Schadow - POLICLET ODER VON DEN MAASSEN DES MENSCHEN NACH GESCHLECHT UND ALTER 1834 c

Gottfried Schadow – POLICLET ODER VON DEN MAASSEN DES MENSCHEN NACH GESCHLECHT UND ALTER 1834 c

 

 

 

Johann Gottfried Schadow - Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers 2. These Johann Gottfried Schadow lesson drawings demonstrate foreshortening rules of proportion that proportions are interrelated and constant, remain true to the actual measured elements and not distorted contradicting interrelated scale as would be the case with perspective from angled viewpoints.

Johann Gottfried Schadow – Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers 2. These Johann Gottfried Schadow lesson drawings demonstrate foreshortening rules of proportion that proportions are interrelated and constant, remain true to the actual measured elements and not distorted contradicting interrelated scale as would be the case with perspective from angled viewpoints.

Johann Gottfried Schadow - Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers 2. These Johann Gottfried Schadow lesson drawings demonstrate foreshortening rules of proportion that proportions are interrelated and constant, remain true to the actual measured elements and not distorted contradicting interrelated scale as would be the case with perspective from angled viewpoints.

Johann Gottfried Schadow – Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers 2. These Johann Gottfried Schadow lesson drawings demonstrate foreshortening rules of proportion that proportions are interrelated and constant, remain true to the actual measured elements and not distorted contradicting interrelated scale as would be the case with perspective from angled viewpoints.

 

 

 

 

 

Sight Size Traite Complet de La Peinture par M Paillot de Montabert Planches Paris 1829 - This example demonstrates the method change in fine art instruction early in the 19th. century that is endemic of bad art mimicking realism through superficial surface copy tricks instead of learning how to interpret complex form. This "Sight Size" method prior to the 19th. century has some precedent related to copy enlargement methods that had legitimacy as a enlargement of an already largely properly conceived and finished artwork from life to place it's larger scale reproduction. The prior to early photography "Camera Obscura" inclusion in the copyist illustrator method is in opposition to "High Art" that derives from the lineage in Classical, Hellenistic, and Early Greco-Roman in the most sophisticated surviving works that are the ingredients of the best in European fine art. Proof of value and depth of merit in scale when determining the worth in any particular artist or the specific works produced by the artist were based on the degree of incorporating with an understanding the inheritance extracted from Greek and Greco-Roman art in it's best examples. Many copy methods were developed even in the early Renaissance that contradicts the sophistication and content of antique - Greek Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman sculpture at the antique Greek sculptures highest level of sophistication. None of the European artwork is equal to the best of antique - but finds it's inherent value directly from the antique lineage. "Style" both accidental and superficially labored comic devices as well as "Realism" that superficially mimics surface - substitute in much of the European traditional art the sophisticated visual content of "High Art" in antique - prior to the "Camera Obscura" or photography. Sight-Size, Gerome / Barge - Shadow Shape, rendering from surface light effects, copying from the Camera Obscura or from photography starting in the late 1830s / 1840s / copying in its many manifestations which are beyond categorization here degenerated especially post 1820 and became the decadent superficial art norm in a downward spiral through the nineteenth century. Some resistance prevailed in opposition to mimicking techniques derived from photography or it's equivalents by individual artists or on a larger scale to some degree regionally even up to the 1890s. Almost all artwork now is derived directly from photography, partially from photography, or replicating photography mimicking techniques with essentially the same results as photography - thus a bastardization of art and in opposition to "High Art". The mind learns by habit the process of extracting the source for visual input in art - as such the mind of the contemporary artist is incapable of producing art based on Greek and Greco-Roman lineage - complex orders of geometric shape establishing dimensional sophistication. The camera - photography and the artist conveying a process that replicates photo-derived work is dimensionally flat - two dimensional schematics that rely on light effects and surface rendering generic realism at times mixed with exaggerated comic stylizations to appear as translations. But the substandard art and its ingredients are not worth going into here listing every instance of shortcoming and opposition to Greek, and Greco-Roman lineage in art. Once the mind is trained in this dumbed down method it's highly unlikely to have success in re-training again the visual complexity to approach antique. This is especially true considering the input from birth with media in photography, film, computer digital images, etc.. that have become the visual reality. Even before the advent of film, photography, "Camera Obscura", etc..., the naive natural visual norm would never arrive at the sophistication in Greek, and Greco-Roman art by chance - this is a long specific training in deep exposure to antique art. Also a process of establishing - training the mind to perceive the complex ingredients that comprise its content - of which successive generations of artists - pre-1820 - built further understanding in this pursuit. The breakdown in the late eighteenth century away from this complex visual language continued disintegration through the nineteenth century. By making sculptures, paintings, or drawings from antique on its own guarantees nothing in results if the complex visual content method extracted from antique is not understood, the results without the depth of content issues become rendering tonal surface light exercises that might as well derive from a white lamp post.

Sight-Size Traite Complet de La Peinture par M Paillot de Montabert Planches Paris 1829 – This example demonstrates the method change in fine art instruction early in the 19th. century that is endemic to bad art mimicking realism through superficial surface copy tricks instead of learning how to interpret complex form. This “Sight-Size” method prior to the 19th. century has some precedent related to copy enlargement methods that had legitimacy as an enlargement of an already largely properly conceived and finished artwork from life to place it’s larger scale reproduction. The prior to early photography “Camera Obscura” inclusion in the copyist illustrator method is in opposition to “High Art” that derives from the lineage in Classical, Hellenistic, and Early Greco-Roman in the most sophisticated surviving works that are the ingredients of the best in European fine art. Proof of value and depth of merit in scale when determining the worth in any particular artist or the specific works produced by the artist were based on the degree of incorporating with an understanding the inheritance extracted from Greek and Greco-Roman art in it’s best examples. Many copy methods were developed even in the early Renaissance that contradicts the sophistication and content of antique – Greek Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman sculpture at the antique Greek sculptures highest level of sophistication. None of the European artwork is equal to the best of antique – but finds it’s inherent value directly from the antique lineage. “Style” both accidental and superficially labored comic devices as well as “Realism” that superficially mimics surface – substitute in much of the European traditional art the sophisticated visual content of “High Art” in antique – prior to the “Camera Obscura” or photography. Sight-Size, Gerome / Barge – Shadow Shape, rendering from surface light effects, copying from the Camera Obscura or from photography starting in the late 1830s / 1840s / copying in its many manifestations which are beyond categorization here degenerated especially post 1820 and became the decadent superficial art norm in a downward spiral through the nineteenth century. Some resistance prevailed in opposition to mimicking techniques derived from photography or it’s equivalents by individual artists or on a larger scale to some degree regionally even up to the 1890s. Almost all artwork now is derived directly from photography, partially from photography, or replicating photography mimicking techniques with essentially the same results as photography – thus a bastardization of art and in opposition to “High Art”. The mind learns by habit the process of extracting the source for visual input in art – as such the mind of the contemporary artist is incapable of producing art based on Greek and Greco-Roman lineage – complex orders of geometric shape establishing dimensional sophistication. The camera – photography and the artist conveying a process that replicates photo-derived work is dimensionally flat – two dimensional schematics that rely on light effects and surface rendering generic realism at times mixed with exaggerated comic stylizations to appear as translations. But the substandard art and its ingredients are not worth going into here listing every instance of shortcoming and opposition to Greek, and Greco-Roman lineage in art. Once the mind is trained in this dumbed down method it’s highly unlikely to have success in re-training again the visual complexity to approach antique. This is especially true considering the input from birth with media in photography, film, computer digital images, etc.. that have become the visual reality. Even before the advent of film, photography, “Camera Obscura”, etc…, the naive natural visual norm would never arrive at the sophistication in Greek, and Greco-Roman art by chance – this is a long specific training in deep exposure to antique art. Also a process of establishing – training the mind to perceive the complex ingredients that comprise its content – of which successive generations of artists – pre-1820 – built further understanding in this pursuit. The breakdown in the late eighteenth century away from this complex visual language continued disintegration through the nineteenth century. By making sculptures, paintings, or drawings from antique on its own guarantees nothing in results if the complex visual content method extracted from antique is not understood, the results without the depth of content issues become rendering tonal surface light exercises that might as well derive from a white lamp post.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alphonse Lami “Anatomie artistique Myologie superficielle du corps humain” (1861), Full Standing Anatomical Figure Drawing Engraving

Alphonse Lami “Anatomie artistique Myologie superficielle du corps humain” (1861), Full Standing Anatomical Figure Drawing

 

 

Anatomical Half Torso cast from life - one hour post death, so the alignments and position of anatomical bone, cartilage, and muscle are proper to to actual relationships in a living subject.

Anatomical Half Torso – Coronal Plane cast from life – one-hour post-death, so the alignments and position of anatomical bone, cartilage, and muscle are proper to actual relationships in a living subject. Notice for example the bell shape of the ribcage – the top unit comprising the first to sixth rib, proceeding medially culminating at the sixth rib – the sixth rib the transitional rib – the lower shape unit comprising the sixth to the twelfth rib. This shape unit of the bell aspect of the whole rib cage relates to the specific individual – geometrically organic in shape and in repetition throughout the whole figure in Fibonacci or Genome proportional elements. The whole rib cage would be represented including the missing front anterior aspect, but for demonstration purposes is here as a half cut aspect.

Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered one of the most important French sculptor of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world's largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (Gotha, 30 January 1745 – Gotha, 20 April 1804) was the reigning Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg from 1772 to 1804. He was the third but second surviving son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen. Gotha, despite its size, was thought of as a place that important people of the time should visit. One such person was Goethe, who visited several times. From 1774 he was a Freemason in the Zinnendorf system and a member of the Gotha Lodge Zum Rautenkranz, which had been founded by Abel Seyler, Konrad Ekhof and other members of the Seyler Theatre Company in the same year. In 1775, he was appointed Grand Master of the Landesloge of Germany (Zinnendorf system). In 1783, he became a member of the Bavarian Illuminati under the name of Quintus Severus and/or Timoleon, and in 1784, he was made Supervisor of Abessinien (a name for Upper Saxony). In 1787, he granted Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the secret society, asylum in Gotha. He was buried wrapped in a white cloth on the park island. "Most of the approximately seventy extant works by Houdon in Germany were acquired in the eighteenth century by German noble families, a historical link still reflected in the locations of the main collections in Gotha, Schwerin, Berlin (with Potsdam and Rheinsberg), and Weimar. The small principality of the court of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, (Thüringen) became Houdon's first major patron at a time when the gifted sculptor was just beginning his career in Paris after his student years in Rome. Although Houdon's two visits to Gotha, in the early 1770s were his only trips to Germany, his oeuvre and his reputation drew Germans as clients throughout his life. Central to almost all of Houdon's German commissions was the expatriate Frédéric-Melchior Grimm (1723-1807), a prominent figure of the Paris Enlightenment who served as advisor and cultural attaché to several members of the German nobility. A native of the imperial city of Regensburg, he had settled in the French capital in 1749 and became a close friend of the influential critic Denis Diderot and his collaborator on the Encyclopédie. With the publication of the Correspondence littéraire, a semiprivate cultural newsletter distributed in manuscript form to an exclusive circle of ruling foreign families, Grimm had a compelling tool to gain favor of the powerful and to shape their opinions. His subscribers included King Frederick II and his brother Prince Henry of Prussia, Duchess Louise Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha and her son Duke Ernst II, Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar, and Margrave Alexander of Ansbach, in addition to the courts of Russia, Sweden, and Poland. Credited by Diderot and Grimm's long-standing confidante, Mme d'Epinay (1726-1783), the Correspondence littéraire was a valuable means of communication between the French philosophers and the European authorities, with the implicit intent to aid the political realization of Enlightenment ideas by educating it's influential readership. On a more concrete level the newsletter was an excellent source of uncensored information on Parisian intellectual life. It also helped promote select authors, composers, or artists, which often resulted in the increased acquisition of the works reviewed. By the mid-1770s Grimm withdrew from his activities as a literary critic in favor of working directly for those in power. He received official appointments as minister plenipotentiary (Geheimer Rat) for the duke of Saxe-Gotha in 1775 and councillor of state for Catherine II of Russia in 1777. Until his final departure from Paris in 1792, his responsibilities ranged from important diplomatic missions to art transactions to escorting foreign visitors through Paris. Both Grimm and Diderot were already on very friendly terms with Houdon by 1772, when they are recorded as casually stopping by his house. Houdon And Gotha From his early days in Paris, Grimm was attached to the court of Saxe-Gotha, which in spite of its limited financial resources had acquired a taste for French splendor and joie de vivre. Duchess Louise Dorothea (1710-1767), the highly cultivated wife of Duke Friederich III (1699-1772), was one of the first subscribers to Grimm's Correspondence littéraire and played a key role in bringing the Enlightenment to Gotha. Her son Ernst Ludwig (1745-1804), who reigned as Ernst II, focused on the arts and sciences and while economically prudent, added considerably to the ducal collections in Schloss Friedenstein. Apparently, as part of an ambitious plan to turn Gotha into a major center of Enlightenment activities in Germany, he initiated the foundation of an art academy at his court and established a collection of plaster casts for educational purposes. In 1771, thanks to Grimm's intervention, Houdon was engaged to take over the design and execution of a funerary monument for the late duchess of Saxe-Gotha, a project that had already been in the works for several years. Houdon traveled to Gotha twice - from 25 October to 3 December 1771 and again, after the dukes death, from 2 May to 15 June 1773, when the plans for the mausoleum were changed to commemorate both husband and wife. During his first visit Houdon not only studied the location for the projected tomb but also rendered the portraits of several members of the ducal Family and befriended Ernst Ludwig and his spouse, Charlotte Amalie of Saxe-Meiningen. In anticipation of his cultural plans for Gotha, the hereditary prince spontaneously decided to send his protégé Friederich Wilhelm Doell (1750-1816), a former model maker for porcelain figures, to Paris with Houdon to be trained as a sculptor in Houdon's studio. In July 1772, following Ernst's ascension to the throne, Houdon mailed an assortment of sixteen of his early works in plaster to Gotha, including the figures of the Saint Bruno and the Priest of the Lupercalia (cats. 4 and 5) as well as copies after the antique, drawings, and medals, all of which were intended to be study objects in the duke's planned art academy. The shipment was accompanied by a recently discovered letter, in which the sculptor gives a detailed account of the pieces in the crates, explains or defends some of his compositions, and articulates his opinions, granting insight into his beliefs both as an artist and as a person. Despite his dismissal from the ill-fated tomb project in 1775 and the court's failure to keep the marble statue of Diana the Huntress (see cat. 35), Houdon continued his cordial relationship with the ducal family for decades and was highly respected for his skills as a portraitist. Over the years the plaster version of the Diana the Huntress and several representative portraits were acquired, including busts of Voltaire, Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin, and Jean-Sylvain Bailly (see cat. 33) Originally displayed in the halls of Schloss Friedenstein or incorporated directly into the collection of plaster casts that from 1786 onward was overseen by Houdon's former student Doell, most of these sculptures have been preserved until today, forming the largest collection of works by Houdon outside of France." - excerpts from Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment By Anne L. Poulet

Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered one of the most important French sculptors of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world’s largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (Gotha, 30 January 1745 – Gotha, 20 April 1804) was the reigning Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg from 1772 to 1804. He was the third but second surviving son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen. Gotha, despite its size, was thought of as a place that important people of the time should visit. One such person was Goethe, who visited several times. From 1774 he was a Freemason in the Zinnendorf system and a member of the Gotha Lodge Zum Rautenkranz, which had been founded by Abel Seyler, Konrad Ekhof and other members of the Seyler Theatre Company in the same year. In 1775, he was appointed Grand Master of the Landesloge of Germany (Zinnendorf system). In 1783, he became a member of the Bavarian Illuminati under the name of Quintus Severus and/or Timoleon, and in 1784, he was made Supervisor of Abessinien (a name for Upper Saxony). In 1787, he granted Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the secret society, asylum in Gotha. He was buried wrapped in a white cloth on the park island. “Most of the approximately seventy extant works by Houdon in Germany were acquired in the eighteenth century by German noble families, a historical link still reflected in the locations of the main collections in Gotha, Schwerin, Berlin (with Potsdam and Rheinsberg), and Weimar. The small principality of the court of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, (Thüringen) became Houdon’s first major patron at a time when the gifted sculptor was just beginning his career in Paris after his student years in Rome. Although Houdon’s two visits to Gotha, in the early 1770s were his only trips to Germany, his oeuvre and his reputation drew Germans as clients throughout his life. Central to almost all of Houdon’s German commissions was the expatriate Frédéric-Melchior Grimm (1723-1807), a prominent figure of the Paris Enlightenment who served as advisor and cultural attaché to several members of the German nobility. A native of the imperial city of Regensburg, he had settled in the French capital in 1749 and became a close friend of the influential critic Denis Diderot and his collaborator on the Encyclopédie. With the publication of the Correspondence littéraire, a semiprivate cultural newsletter distributed in manuscript form to an exclusive circle of ruling foreign families, Grimm had a compelling tool to gain favor of the powerful and to shape their opinions. His subscribers included King Frederick II and his brother Prince Henry of Prussia, Duchess Louise Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha and her son Duke Ernst II, Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar, and Margrave Alexander of Ansbach, in addition to the courts of Russia, Sweden, and Poland. Credited by Diderot and Grimm’s long-standing confidante, Mme d’Epinay (1726-1783), the Correspondence littéraire was a valuable means of communication between the French philosophers and the European authorities, with the implicit intent to aid the political realization of Enlightenment ideas by educating its influential readership. On a more concrete level the newsletter was an excellent source of uncensored information on Parisian intellectual life. It also helped promote select authors, composers, or artists, which often resulted in the increased acquisition of the works reviewed. By the mid-1770s Grimm withdrew from his activities as a literary critic in favor of working directly for those in power. He received official appointments as minister plenipotentiary (Geheimer Rat) for the duke of Saxe-Gotha in 1775 and councillor of state for Catherine II of Russia in 1777. Until his final departure from Paris in 1792, his responsibilities ranged from important diplomatic missions to art transactions to escorting foreign visitors through Paris. Both Grimm and Diderot were already on very friendly terms with Houdon by 1772, when they are recorded as casually stopping by his house. Houdon And Gotha From his early days in Paris, Grimm was attached to the court of Saxe-Gotha, which in spite of its limited financial resources had acquired a taste for French splendor and joie de vivre. Duchess Louise Dorothea (1710-1767), the highly cultivated wife of Duke Friederich III (1699-1772), was one of the first subscribers to Grimm’s Correspondence littéraire and played a key role in bringing the Enlightenment to Gotha. Her son Ernst Ludwig (1745-1804), who reigned as Ernst II, focused on the arts and sciences and while economically prudent, added considerably to the ducal collections in Schloss Friedenstein. Apparently, as part of an ambitious plan to turn Gotha into a major center of Enlightenment activities in Germany, he initiated the foundation of an art academy at his court and established a collection of plaster casts for educational purposes. In 1771, thanks to Grimm’s intervention, Houdon was engaged to take over the design and execution of a funerary monument for the late duchess of Saxe-Gotha, a project that had already been in the works for several years. Houdon traveled to Gotha twice – from 25 October to 3 December 1771 and again, after the dukes death, from 2 May to 15 June 1773, when the plans for the mausoleum were changed to commemorate both husband and wife. During his first visit Houdon not only studied the location for the projected tomb but also rendered the portraits of several members of the ducal Family and befriended Ernst Ludwig and his spouse, Charlotte Amalie of Saxe-Meiningen. In anticipation of his cultural plans for Gotha, the hereditary prince spontaneously decided to send his protégé Friederich Wilhelm Doell (1750-1816), a former model maker for porcelain figures, to Paris with Houdon to be trained as a sculptor in Houdon’s studio. In July 1772, following Ernst’s ascension to the throne, Houdon mailed an assortment of sixteen of his early works in plaster to Gotha, including the figures of the Saint Bruno and the Priest of the Lupercalia (cats. 4 and 5) as well as copies after the antique, drawings, and medals, all of which were intended to be study objects in the duke’s planned art academy. The shipment was accompanied by a recently discovered letter, in which the sculptor gives a detailed account of the pieces in the crates, explains or defends some of his compositions, and articulates his opinions, granting insight into his beliefs both as an artist and as a person. Despite his dismissal from the ill-fated tomb project in 1775 and the court’s failure to keep the marble statue of Diana the Huntress (see cat. 35), Houdon continued his cordial relationship with the ducal family for decades and was highly respected for his skills as a portraitist. Over the years the plaster version of the Diana the Huntress and several representative portraits were acquired, including busts of Voltaire, Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin, and Jean-Sylvain Bailly (see cat. 33) Originally displayed in the halls of Schloss Friedenstein or incorporated directly into the collection of plaster casts that from 1786 onward was overseen by Houdon’s former student Doell, most of these sculptures have been preserved until today, forming the largest collection of works by Houdon outside of France.” – excerpts from Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment By Anne L. Poulet


Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered the one of the most important French sculptor of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world's largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master.

Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered one of the most important French sculptors of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world’s largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master.


Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered the one of the most important French sculptor of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world's largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master.

Jean Antoine Houdon, Ecorche, Plaster, Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Thüringen, Germany. The plaster is an original model made by Houdon and his studio. Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) is considered one of the most important French sculptors of 18th-century classical period. His artistic potential was discovered early, especially at the Thuringian courtyards. Today, Gotha owns the world’s largest collection of works by Houdon besides Paris, and also Weimar, Rudolstadt and Altenburg shine with authentic works of the master.


Ernst Bernadien - 1864, Koenigsberg Studiert an der Kunstakademie Koenigsberg, bei Prof Frederich Reusch, Figure of a Young Man in period clothes with a sword, bronze - life size, in the Archaeology Dept. Exhibit hall, University of Leipzig. This bronze work by Ernst Bernadien is a hybrid of earlier traditional method mixed with "optical record". Part of the process of working from photographs or post 1850 training Part of the process of working from photographs or “Optical Record” - post 1840 training that replicates what a photograph changes in observation and perceptual input - #1: Tonal dimension is compressed artificially, realistic looking to an audience trained to see in a filtered manner as typically replicated from the exposure to film and photographic medium. Thus this compressed tonal dimension ends up isolating shape in placement patterns that are stilted and diagrammatic, as well as flattened out. #2: Movement is captured in a moment which produces an awkward compressed literal static follow through as opposed to the best traditional sculpture/two dimensional art which does follow through an implied dance of a motion which often is contradictory to actual literal motion as a photograph depicts thus concluding as static realism. - #3: Compression of tones also produces cut out aspects to the sculpture/two dimensional art which produce linear outline effects that bear resemblance to the "Art Deco" "Art Nouveau" “Bauhaus” “Communist Realism” Fascist Realism” Classical Realism” “Secessionist Realism” “Romantic Realism” - though this "look" is seen in most sculpture post 1840 because of the influence of photographic perceptual-ism. The number of photographs artists making a sculpture/ or / two-dimensional art utilize is never enough to comprise a shape dimensionally. Even a thousand photographs would still surmise a series of random outlines. This use of photographs inevitably creates outlines from multiple view silhouettes that to an ignorant perception seem to order the whole into a full description. Though it's really just a bunch of static outlines, perhaps thousands if enough photos are used to arrive at that many outlines, but no matter how many silhouette outlines are incorporated there is a static lack of complex geometric shape that displays itself dimensionally as characterized by the best Classical, Hellenistic, and early Greco-Roman sculpture. #4: Movement with the replication or actual use of photographs creates an extension outward with nowhere to go similar to the prior #2 description - there are a number of other issues with the replication or actual use of photographs in "realistic" artwork beyond an extensive description here - #5: Mushy tonal development of "shape" is arrived at through photographically oriented input or it's perceptual equivalent, instead of articulated dimensional complex shape that projects in space as well as is interrelated geometrically. #6: Style becomes a bastardization to fill in the missing junk that a photograph can not fulfill, as opposed to style being an outgrowth of describing in the precedent of orders and their relationship chosen in emphasis in a particular work complex organic geometric inter-related form in its whole ingredients from an intensification beyond a transcription of nature. #7: Any historic personality derived from a photograph, or film, or video as in a portrait bust, or partial or full figure sculpture/ or / two dimensional art, or painting is doomed to be a mess as described above here. As well as most commissions require by time and cost, as well as availability of the life-model, or client for the artist to not work from actual live subjects but substituting completely or partially photographic medium in stead of the live client or life model, but also replicating all the listed issues here even when solely working from “life”. Incorporating the methods described above utilizing photographic/digital mediums, or just by habit in repetition and ignorant training - the artist in their perceptual process arrives at the same results. The time frame, cost in model fee, and availability of a client, or life model, or subject from nature as well as competing on price point dictate joining the ignorant artists of the Modern, Contemporary, Classical Realist, etc… in producing artwork that compromises making up arbitrary visual content that will be termed beautiful style by the art critics. Artwork - sculpture, drawings, paintings that are historic or contemporary reproduced in photographic mediums and used as a source for one's contemporary art as the, or part of the subject development will also arrive at the same conclusions, apart from the one mentioned above #2, and #4 comprising movement. Since the filtering and changes through photographic process altar the historic artwork in much the same manner that photographic mediums from life change the visual perception and presentation. Often geometric schematics of composition implemented in the position of the elements of a sculpture or painting will also take on the literalist visual viewpoint - by aligning a horses hoof, a finger tip pointing, etc... at the exact convergence of two or more axis lines like a dumb founded arrow point, instead of passing through compositionally - instead a literalist hinge on a door flapping in the wind. It's a literalist mindset that in transcription starts to invade the whole thinking in perception. After this "habit" of extraction from photographic sources or the equivalent in a perceptual process - shadow shape, sight size, tonal transcription, memorized units of linear patterns as seen in sculpture - as an example at the extreme in "Stalinist" Communist propaganda sculpture, or earlier 19th century examples, a plethora of standard methods, etc... the mind latches onto these - and reiterates this perception in development of all art regardless if the photograph is not at hand to copy for a particular artwork project. The minds perceptual input has been altered and will replicate this malfunction in art throughout all endeavors of making new works.

Ernst Bernadien – 1864, Koenigsberg Studiert an der Kunstakademie Koenigsberg, bei Prof Frederich Reusch, Figure of a Young Man in period attire, bronze – life-size, in the Archaeology Dept. Exhibit hall, University of Leipzig. This bronze work by Ernst Bernadien is a hybrid of earlier traditional method mixed with “optical record”. Part of the process of working from photographs or post 1850 training Part of the process of working from photographs or “Optical Record” – post 1840 training that replicates what a photograph changes in observation and perceptual input – #1: Tonal dimension is compressed artificially, realistic looking to an audience trained to see in a filtered manner as typically replicated from the exposure to film and photographic medium. Thus this compressed tonal dimension ends up isolating shape in placement patterns that are stilted and diagrammatic, as well as flattened out. #2: Movement is captured in a moment which produces an awkward compressed literal static follow through as opposed to the best traditional sculpture/two dimensional art which does follow through an implied dance of a motion which often is contradictory to actual literal motion as a photograph depicts thus concluding as static realism. – #3: Compression of tones also produces cut out aspects to the sculpture/two dimensional art which produce linear outline effects that bear resemblance to the “Art Deco” “Art Nouveau” “Bauhaus” “Communist Realism” Fascist Realism” Classical Realism” “Secessionist Realism” “Romantic Realism” – though this “look” is seen in most sculpture post 1840 because of the influence of photographic perceptual-ism. The number of photographs artists making a sculpture/ or / two-dimensional art utilize is never enough to comprise a shape dimensionally. Even a thousand photographs would still surmise a series of random outlines. This use of photographs inevitably creates outlines from multiple view silhouettes that to an ignorant perception seem to order the whole into a full description. Though it’s really just a bunch of static outlines, perhaps thousands if enough photos are used to arrive at that many outlines, but no matter how many silhouette outlines are incorporated there is a static lack of complex geometric shape that displays itself dimensionally as characterized by the best Classical, Hellenistic, and early Greco-Roman sculpture. #4: Movement with the replication or actual use of photographs creates an extension outward with nowhere to go similar to the prior #2 description – there are a number of other issues with the replication or actual use of photographs in “realistic” artwork beyond an extensive description here – #5: Mushy tonal development of “shape” is arrived at through photographically oriented input or it’s perceptual equivalent, instead of articulated dimensional complex shape that projects in space as well as is interrelated geometrically. #6: Style becomes a bastardization to fill in the missing junk that a photograph can not fulfill, as opposed to style being an outgrowth of describing in the precedent of orders and their relationship chosen in emphasis in a particular work complex organic geometric inter-related form in its whole ingredients from an intensification beyond a transcription of nature. #7: Any historic personality derived from a photograph, or film, or video as in a portrait bust, or partial or full figure sculpture/ or / two dimensional art, or painting is doomed to be a mess as described above here. As well as most commissions require by time and cost, as well as availability of the life-model, or client for the artist to not work from actual live subjects but substituting completely or partially photographic medium instead of the live client or life model, but also replicating all the listed issues here even when solely working from “life”. Incorporating the methods described above utilizing photographic/digital mediums, or just by habit in repetition and ignorant training – the artist in their perceptual process arrives at the same results. The time frame, cost in model fee, and availability of a client, or life model, or subject from nature as well as competing on price point dictate joining the ignorant artists of the Modern, Contemporary, Classical Realist, etc… in producing artwork that compromises making up arbitrary visual content that will be termed beautiful style by the art critics. Artwork – sculpture, drawings, paintings that are historic or contemporary reproduced in photographic mediums and used as a source for one’s contemporary art as the, or part of the subject development will also arrive at the same conclusions, apart from the one mentioned above #2, and #4 comprising movement. Since the filtering and changes through photographic process alter the historic artwork in much the same manner that photographic mediums from life change the visual perception and presentation. Often geometric schematics of composition implemented in the position of the elements of a sculpture or painting will also take on the literalist visual viewpoint – by aligning a horses hoof, a fingertip pointing, etc… at the exact convergence of two or more axis lines like a dumbfounded arrow point, instead of passing through compositionally – instead a literalist hinge on a door flapping in the wind. It’s a literalist mindset that in transcription starts to invade the whole thinking in perception. After this “habit” of extraction from photographic sources or the equivalent in a perceptual process – shadow shape, sight size, tonal transcription, memorized units of linear patterns as seen in sculpture – as an example at the extreme in “Stalinist” Communist propaganda sculpture, or earlier 19th century examples, a plethora of standard methods, etc… the mind latches onto these – and reiterates this perception in development of all art regardless if the photograph is not at hand to copy for a particular artwork project. The minds perceptual input has been altered and will replicate this malfunction in art throughout all endeavors of making new works.

 

Ernst Bernadien - 1864, Koenigsberg Studiert an der Kunstakademie Koenigsberg, bei Prof Frederich Reusch, Figure of a Young Man in period clothes with a sword, bronze - life size, in the Archaeology Dept. Exhibit hall, University of Leipzig

Ernst Bernadien – 1864, Koenigsberg Studiert an der Kunstakademie Koenigsberg, bei Prof Frederich Reusch, Figure of a Young Man in period attire, bronze – life-size, in the Archaeology Dept. Exhibit hall, University of Leipzig

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ludwig Pfeiffer - Handbuch der Angewandten Anatomie 1899

Ludwig Pfeiffer – Handbuch der Angewandten Anatomie 1899

Anatomie Canonique de la Canon De Polyclete Retrouve par H C A L Fock, Utrecht. Articulated Skeleton position of bone element relationships to each other as well as the geometric shape implied by medical and artistic skeleton articulation does not reflect actual reality in a living person. As demonstrated in the other above referenced picture (colored plaster torso Coronal Plane dissection above) here of a Coronal Plane cut through of a torso one hour post death - the torso represents a much closer reality in bone, cartilage, and muscle relationships in creating geometric shape to a living person. Very few skeleton drawings, and prepared medical skeletons show the "bell shape" as described with the Coronal Plane cut through torso life dissection. The intercostal portion shrinks upward as well as flattens - shrinks inward posteriorly post death re-aligning the ribs which depend on the intercostal as a structure for shape orientation, geometry, and position. This is just one example of alignment and arrangement of bone, cartilage, and muscle divergent from an actual live model. Just about every contemporary artistic anatomical course is training the mind to superimpose generic incorrect visual information that only can create confusion, contradictory, and incoherent results. Beyond simple anatomical issues are issues of complex geometry inherent in shape as demonstrated by the best of the Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture - this complex geometry requires as a starting point an understanding of correct orientation of anatomical structures. Even though the rib cage is devoid of it's complexity and variation alignment with the bell-shape - there is an attempt to relate to a degree the shape type generally reflecting the rib cage shape to the head / skull shape and pelvis shape repeating in orientation within each of the drawn skeletons here by H. C. A. L. Fock.

Anatomie Canonique de la Canon De Polyclete Retrouve par H C A L Fock, Utrecht. Articulated Skeleton position of bone element relationships to each other as well as the geometric shape implied by medical and artistic skeleton articulation does not reflect actual reality in a living person. As demonstrated in the other above-referenced picture (colored plaster torso Coronal Plane dissection above) here of a Coronal Plane cut through of a torso one hour post death – the torso represents a much closer reality in bone, cartilage, and muscle relationships in creating geometric shape to a living person. Very few skeleton drawings, and prepared medical skeletons show the “bell shape” as described with the Coronal Plane cut through torso life dissection. The intercostal portion shrinks upward as well as flattens – shrinks inward posteriorly post death re-aligning the ribs which depend on the intercostal as a structure for shape orientation, geometry, and position. This is just one example of alignment and arrangement of bone, cartilage, and muscle divergent from an actual live model. Just about every contemporary artistic anatomical course is training the mind to superimpose generic incorrect visual information that only can create confusion, contradictory, and incoherent results. Beyond simple anatomical issues are issues of complex geometry inherent in shape as demonstrated by the best of the Greek and Greco-Roman sculpture – this complex geometry requires as a starting point an understanding of correct orientation of anatomical structures. Even though the rib cage is devoid of it’s complexity and variation alignment with the bell-shape – there is an attempt to relate to a degree the shape type generally reflecting the rib cage shape to the head / skull shape and pelvis shape repeating in orientation within each of the drawn skeletons here by H. C. A. L. Fock.

Johann Gottfried Schadow - Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers

Johann Gottfried Schadow – Lehre von den Knochen und Muskeln von den Verhaeltnissen des Menschlichen Koerpers

Jean Cousin - LIVRE DE POVRATRAICTVRE 1595

Jean Cousin – LIVRE DE POVRATRAICTVRE 1595 – lesson drawing demonstrates foreshortening rules of proportion that proportions are interrelated and constant – true to the actual measured elements and not distorted as in perspective from angled viewpoints.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

Complete treatise on the anatomy of man by Dr Bourgery With plates lithographed after nature by N. H. Jacob Author Bourgery Marc Jean 1797 - 1849 Published Paris 1831 - 1854

Complete treatise on the anatomy of man by Dr Bourgery With plates lithographed after nature by N. H. Jacob Author Bourgery Marc Jean 1797 – 1849 Published Paris 1831 – 1854

Complete treatise on the anatomy of man including operative medicine by Dr Bourgery With plates lithographed after nature by N. H. Jacob Author Bourgery Marc Jean

Complete treatise on the anatomy of man including operative medicine by Dr Bourgery With plates lithographed after nature by N. H. Jacob Author Bourgery Marc Jean

19th. century

19th. century

Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti figurative, Turin, 1837-39 - Francesco Bertinatti, (fl. mid-1800s) - [anatomist]; Mecco Leone - [artist]

Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti figurative, Turin, 1837-39 – Francesco Bertinatti, (fl. mid-1800s) – [anatomist]; Mecco Leone – [artist]

SALVAGE, Jean Galbert (1770-1813). Anatomie du Gladiateur combattant, applicable aux beaux arts, ou traité des os, des muscles, du mcanisme des mouvemens, des proportions et des caractre du corps humain. Paris: chez l'Auteur, 1812.

SALVAGE, Jean Galbert (1770-1813). Anatomie du Gladiateur combattant, applicable aux beaux arts, ou traité des os, des muscles, du mcanisme des mouvemens, des proportions et des caractre du corps humain. Paris: chez l’Auteur, 1812.

Tommaso Piroli Raccolta di Studj come Elementi del Disegno tratti dall'Antico da Raffaello e Michelangelo Con aggiunta di Alcune Tavole Anatomiche 1801

Tommaso Piroli Raccolta di Studj come Elementi del Disegno tratti dall’Antico da Raffaello e Michelangelo Con aggiunta di Alcune Tavole Anatomiche 1801

Gerard de Laraisse - Bidloo Ontleding 1690_27

Gerard de Laraisse – Bidloo Ontleding 1690_27

Gerard de Laraisse - Bidloo Ontleding 1690 - 70

Gerard de Laraisse – Bidloo Ontleding 1690 – 70

Jacob Nicolas Henri - Preparatory drawings for the Comprehensive Treatise on the Anatomy of Man by J. M. Bourgery_sl_sn_1810-1831

Jacob Nicolas Henri – Preparatory drawings for the Comprehensive Treatise on the Anatomy of Man by J. M. Bourgery_sl_sn_1810-1831

Elfinger Anton - Anatomie des Menschen die Knochen Muskel und Bänderlehre 1854

Elfinger Anton – Anatomie des Menschen die Knochen Muskel und Bänderlehre 1854

Francesco Bertinatti - Tavole Anatomiche Annesse agli Elementi di Anatomia Fisiologica Applicata alle Belle Arti Figurative 1837

Francesco Bertinatti – Tavole Anatomiche Annesse agli Elementi di Anatomia Fisiologica Applicata alle Belle Arti Figurative 1837

Christoph Jacob Trew: Tabulae osteologicae

Christoph Jacob Trew: Tabulae osteologicae

Dutch Anonymus - Portrait Head Proportional Elements NIH

Dutch Anonymus – Portrait Head Proportional Elements NIH

Giambattista Sabattini - TAVOLE ANATOMICHE PER LI PITTORI E GLI SCULTORI 1814

Giambattista Sabattini – TAVOLE ANATOMICHE PER LI PITTORI E GLI SCULTORI 1814

Giambattista Sabattini - TAVOLE ANATOMICHE PER LI PITTORI E GLI SCULTORI 1814

Giambattista Sabattini – TAVOLE ANATOMICHE PER LI PITTORI E GLI SCULTORI 1814

Francesco Carradori - Istruzione elementare per gli studiosi della scultura 1802

Francesco Carradori – Istruzione elementare per gli studiosi della scultura 1802

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Ecorche La Specola, Florence - source of Anatomical Drawings by Alphonse Lami

Ecorche La Specola, Florence – source of Anatomical Drawings by Alphonse Lami

Ecorche La Specola, Florence – the source of Anatomical Drawings by Alphonse Lami

 



 

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